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Galaksit syntyvät sisältä ulos päin / kooste 1

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PostPosted: 13.01.2018 12:15    Post subject: Galaksit syntyvät sisältä ulos päin / kooste 1 Reply with quote

Scientists penetrate mystery of raging black hole beams

"Now a team of scientists led by the University of Southampton has moved a step closer to understanding these mysterious cosmic phenomena - known as relativistic jets - by measuring how quickly they 'switch on' and start shining brightly once they are launched.

How these jets form is still a puzzle. One theory suggests that they develop within the 'accretion disc' - the matter sucked into the orbit of a growing black hole. Extreme gravity within the disc twists and stretches magnetic fields, squeezing hot, magnetised disc material called plasma until it erupts in the form of oppositely directed magnetic pillars along the black hole's rotational axis."


Yllättävä havainto - galaksin jokainen sumupilvi erottuu omanlaisenaan

"ALMA pystyi paljastamaan meille pilvien hienorakenteen erotustarkkuudellaan ja herkkyydellään", kuvailee Roy Ando Tokion yliopistosta. "Yllätyksekseni kaasupilvillä vaikuttaa olevan vahva kemiallinen eroavuus siitä huolimatta, että ne muistuttavat toisiaan kooltaan ja massoiltaan."


ALMA discovers infant stars surprisingly near galaxy's supermassive black hole

"At the center of our galaxy, in the immediate vicinity of its supermassive black hole, is a region wracked by powerful tidal forces and bathed in intense ultraviolet light and X-ray radiation. These harsh conditions, astronomers surmise, do not favor star formation, especially low-mass stars like our sun. Surprisingly, new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) suggest otherwise."

""Despite all odds, we see the best evidence yet that low-mass stars are forming startlingly close to the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way," said Farhad Yusef-Zadeh, an astronomer at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and lead author on the paper. "This is a genuinely surprising result and one that demonstrates just how robust star formation can be, even in the most unlikely of places""


Scientists observe supermassive black hole in infant universe

"There is one large mystery that remains to be solved: How did a black hole of such massive proportions form so early in the universe's history? It's thought that black holes grow by accreting, or absorbing mass from the surrounding environment. Extremely large black holes, such as the one identified by Simcoe and his colleagues, should form over periods much longer than 690 million years.

"If you start with a seed like a big star, and let it grow at the maximum possible rate, and start at the moment of the Big Bang, you could never make something with 800 million solar masses—it's unrealistic," Simcoe says. "So there must be another way that it formed. And how exactly that happens, nobody knows.""


"Astronomers have observed absorption lines in many quasars that are indicative of absorption en route by cool gas with heavy metal elements like carbon, magnesium and silicon. The lines signal that the light has travelled through winds of cold gas travelling at speeds of thousands of kilometres per second within the quasars' host galaxies. Whilst knowledge that these winds exist is nothing new their origin, and why they are able to reach such impressive speeds, has remained an unknown."

"Now, astronomer Peter Barthel and his PhD student Pece Podigachoski, both from the Groningen University Kapteyn Institute, together with colleagues Belinda Wilkes from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (USA) and Martin Haas at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany) have shed light on the cold winds' origins. Using data obtained with ESA's Herschel Space Observatory the astronomers have shown, for the first time, that the strength of the metal absorption lines associated with these mysterious gas winds is directly linked to the rate of star formation within the quasar host galaxies. In finding this trend the astronomers are able to say with some confidence that prodigious star formation within the host galaxy may be the mechanism driving these mysterious and powerful winds."


Varhaisesta universumista löytyi liian suuri musta aukko

"Supermassiivinen musta aukko sijaitsee galaksissa, jonka valo on matkannut avaruuden halki noin 13 miljardin vuoden ajan. On epäselvää, kuinka aukko on voinut kasvaa suuriin mittoihinsa niin varhain.

"Jos aloitat ison tähden kaltaisella siemenellä ja annat sen kasvaa maksiminopeudella alkuräjähdyksestä lähtien, et voi koskaan tuottaa mitään 800 miljoonan Auringon massaista", sanoo Robert Simcoe Massachusettsin teknologisesta instituutista."

""Universumi oli suurin piirtein 50/50. Se on hetki, jolloin ensimmäiset galaksit tulivat esiin neutraalin kaasun kuoristaan ja alkoivat loistaa tietään ulos", Simcoe sanoo. "Tämä on kaikkein tarkin mittaus tuosta ajasta ja todellinen merkki aikakaudesta, jolloin ensimmäiset tähdet syttyivät.""

Olemmeko löytämässä itse itsemme? Yhdistyvätkö eri uskonnot ja tiede jo meidän aikana?
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